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China remains a source, transit and destination country for men, women and children subject to forced labour. There have been a number of media reports exposing cases of forced labour in the country, especially among the disabled whose families are unable to care for them and with an underdeveloped government support system leaving them vulnerable. The disparity of work opportunities between rural and urban populations has created a high migrant population vulnerable to human trafficking. The lure of a higher income leads many migrant workers to accept jobs in China without knowing exactly what they entail. Lin travelled to China with his friend Trong from Vietnam when he was told he could get housework near the border. He was told his travel expenses, food and accommodation would be taken care of and he would earn a good salary. However, upon arrival he found himself in debt bondage, forced to work long hours under the threat of violence in a brick kiln to pay off his incurred fees. Eventually Lin was able to escape along with his friend Trong, hiding out in a nearby forest to avoid discovery. 



Men, women and children make up those trafficked in Indonesia, subjected to forced labour and commercial sexual exploitation. Brokers working in rural areas are known to lure men and boys into forced labour on palm oil, rubber and tobacco plantations. This is often done through debt bondage, in which employers claim the enslaved owes them money for costs that were never agreed upon and as such they must pay off these debts before they can regain their freedom. Threatened with violence and death they become trapped and feel unable to escape the long working hours and heavy labour they must endure without pay. Rising unemployment and slowed job creation has pushed people into the informal sector unprotected by labour laws, and thus has made them more vulnerable to exploitation. There are currently only 18 shelters in Indonesia working to rescue and rehabilitate traffic victims. Unable to afford to continue his education and believing that he could earn more money abroad to support his family, Ismail had been working illegally in Malaysia when he was deported to Dumai, Sumatra where he was approached by a man claiming to be an official. From the moment he departed Dumai Ismail began to accumulate debt, he was told he would be working in the logging industry to pay this off. Subjected to heavy labour under the threat of death, it was only when he was transferred to another workplace with a more lenient boss that Ismail was able to escape and reunite with his family.

Chinaman labourer living at Gaboon, French Congo

Congo state camp at Lukula, Mayumbe country

Repairing bridge over forest swamp, Kasai – Sankuru District

Congo state camp at Lisala. Stanley Falls District

Man and wife carrying load at Ikau, near Basankusu, upper Congo

Congo lads ironing – in employment of Messrs. Lever Brothers' Agents, Kinshassa

Pot making at Bopoto, upper Congo

Boat building shed at Loanda

Pounding maize on the Kasai

Brick burning at Bonginda, upper Congo

Native tailors at Lisala, upper Congo

Bolobo fishers, with their produce for sale at Leopoldville

Bolobo fishers with their produce at Leopoldville

A wooding post on the Juapa

Grinding corn on the Kasai

Interior of workshop, Basel Mission, Christiansborg, Gold Coast

Bolobo fishers with their produce

Bolobo traders with their produce, brought by canoe over 200 miles